structure of vertrebrae
  • Human spine is the structure present in the centre of the body. It is made up of bones, discs, ligaments and muscles, all of which encircle the spinal cord and the nerves. Figure 1.1 and 1.2
medical illustration of the nervous system
  • There are 24 mobile bones or vertebra starting from the brain going below. These bones are in varying shapes and group of these bones form symmetric curves starting from the brain, to the tail bone. This give shape and support to the body. Figure 2
Figure 3.2
  • In close association with the bones are the ligaments, they envelope the spinal cord in the front and back, and also are present laterally (on the sides). The ligaments support the bones and, and also connect the vertebras to each other  Figure 3.1 and 3.2
Figure 3.1
  • The joint at which one Bone (Vertebra) is connected to the other is called a facet joint. It is made up of bony structures of the adjoining bones, and the movement over these joints is what gives mobility to the human body.  Figure 4
Figure 4
3d rendered illustration - human spine
Figure 5
  • Between the two bones, in the front are structures called discs, these are soft and compressible, They act like a cushion between two hard bones, and prevent the bones hitting or rubbing against one another whenever the body moves. Figure 5
  • The spinal cord starts from the brain and ends in the tailbone. It is a collection of nerves-with fluid surrounding them-surrounded by layers of tissues. This fluid is called Cerebrospinal Fluid or Csf. Figure 6
medical illustration of the nervous system
Figure 6
  • The nerves inside the spinal cord exit, behind the discs and course their way to the different regions of the body. These nerves act like wires starting from the spinal cord and running upto the various different groups of muscles. The function of these nerves is to coordinate movements of the various muscles, thus all the bodily movements are controlled by the spinal system.


  • The Human Spine acts as the major nerve center of the body, with a proper synchronous movement of the nerves, muscles and ligaments the day to day activities of every individual are carried out.
  • Spinal pathologies arise when one or more of the spinal structures gets worn out or damaged, these eventually affects the balance of the spine, causes compression over nerves and affects the daily activities in the long run.

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